What are the symptoms, it is necessary to further check whether you have coronary heart disease?

Coronary heart disease is the cause

What are the symptoms? Is it necessary to further check whether you have coronary heart disease?

1, age and gender: incidence of coronary heart disease after 40 years old The incidence of premenopausal women is lower than that of men, and is equal to that of men after menopause.

2, hyperlipidemia: In addition to age, lipid metabolism disorder is the most important predictor of coronary heart disease. There is a close relationship between total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and the risk of coronary events. For every 1% increase in LDLC levels, the risk of coronary heart disease increases by 2-3%. Triglyceride (TG) is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease, often accompanied by low HDLC and impaired glucose tolerance, the latter two are also crowns Risk factors for heart disease.

3. Hypertension: Hypertension is closely related to the formation and development of coronary atherosclerosis. Systolic blood pressure is more predictive of coronary heart disease than diastolic blood pressure. The systolic blood pressure of 140-149 mmhg is more likely to increase the risk of death from coronary heart disease than the diastolic blood pressure of 90-94 mmhg.

4. Smoking: Smoking is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease and is the single most avoidable cause of death. There is a significant dose-response relationship between coronary heart disease and smoking.

5. Diabetes: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in juvenile diabetic patients. Coronary heart disease accounts for nearly 80% of all death causes and hospitalization rates in diabetic patients.

6. Obesity: It has been identified as the primary risk factor for coronary heart disease, which can increase the mortality rate of coronary heart disease. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI= body weight (kg) /height squared (m2)) in men >= 27.8, female >= 27.3.

7, sedentary lifestyle: people who do not love sports will double the risk of coronary heart disease and death.

8, there are still inheritance, drinking, environmental factors and so on.


How do I know I have a coronary heart disease?

What are the symptoms? It is necessary to further check whether you have a coronary heart disease?

1, whenever physical activity is aggravated, such as building, climbing, braking, carrying heavy objects, etc. When the spirit is too tight, when the mood fluctuates, the left chest is uncomfortable and painful after the sternum. And radiate to the throat, shoulders, upper limbs, rest for a while to relieve.

2. After the meal or after 20 minutes, the pain in the back of the chest is more likely to occur after physical activity after a full meal. 3, sudden chest tightness for unknown reasons, heart is uncomfortable, showing a paroxysmal attack.

4. During physical activity, I feel flustered, short of breath, and depressed; I feel guilty, short of breath, chest tightness or chest pain in my sexual life; long-term recurrent left shoulder pain or chest pain.

5, conscious pulse is not uniform, there is a sense of pause, there is a “sudden” heart early jump, or the heart is too fast, too slow.

6, suddenly wake up when you are asleep, feel palpitations, chest tightness, poor breathing, can get better after sitting up.


Common examinations for coronary heart disease

What are the symptoms? Do you need to check further to see if you have coronary heart disease?

1, ask for medical history In addition to physical examinations and routine blood tests, your doctor may also recommend one or more of the following tests:

2. Electrocardiogram (ECG) An electrocardiogram is used to record the electrical activity signals of your heart. . An electrocardiogram reveals evidence of a previous myocardial infarction, or evidence of myocardial ischemia when you have symptoms. In some cases, you will be advised to do Holter Monitoring (HOLTER). You will wear a portable ECG monitor for 24 hours, during which time you can move normally. Some abnormal conditions will prompt you to have myocardial ischemia.

3. Echocardiography (UCG) Echocardiography uses sound waves to display images of the heart. During the examination, the doctor can use the image to determine whether your heart structure is normal and whether the heart muscle can contract properly. When myocardial ischemia occurs, myocardial contractile activity in the ischemic area is weakened. If myocardial infarction has occurred, the myocardial infarction site becomes thinner and completely inactive. In addition to the diagnosis of coronary heart disease, echocardiography can also find other abnormalities in the heart.

4, cardiac load test

(1) If your symptoms usually appear during physical activity, your doctor may ask you to walk on a treadmill or ride a stationary bicycle. ECG examination. This is the so-called exercise load test. In some cases, such as when you are not comfortable exercising, you can also use drugs to stimulate your heart. This is called a drug load test.

(2) A load heart ultrasound test can also be performed. The doctor will perform an echocardiogram before or after your exercise, or a cardiac ultrasound while stimulating the heart with a drug.

(3) Another type of stress test is called myocardial nuclear load imaging, which can be used to detect the blood supply of the myocardium at rest and load. During the examination, it is also necessary to increase the cardiac load by exercise or drug stimulation, and then inject a very small amount of radioactive substances such as guanidine or methoxyacetonitrile through the vein. A three-dimensional image of the heart is obtained by a special photographic device and shows a myocardial ischemic area.

5, coronary angiography (CAG) is also called cardiac catheterization. Compared with other non-invasive examinations, this examination is a minimally invasive examination, and the cost is relatively high, but it is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. During the examination, the doctor needs to puncture your lower extremity or upper extremity artery, pass the arterial blood vessel, send a slender, soft catheter to your coronary artery, and then inject contrast medium into the coronary artery, so that under fluoroscopy You can clearly see the image of the coronary artery and see where it is narrow or blocked. If your coronary artery is stenotic or clogged and requires treatment, you can use an inflatable balloon to open the stenosis to improve blood flow to the heart, then you need to place a stent to keep the artery open for a long time.

6, CT coronary revascularization (CTA) High-speed enhanced CT scan can show coronary arteries, through the computer’s three-dimensional reconstruction process, can obtain images similar to coronary angiography, so also known as CT coronary angiography. This can help doctors understand your coronary conditions, especially coronary calcification. If significant calcification is found, the likelihood of coronary heart disease is high. You need to inject your contrast agent into your vein during this exam.

7. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) This test uses magnetic resonance imaging to check for coronary stenosis or occlusion. Contrast agents are often also required during the examination. Its display image of the coronary artery is not as clear as coronary angiography, and it is currently used less.


Control measures for coronary heart disease

What are the symptoms? Do you need to check further to see if you have coronary heart disease?

All coronary heart disease The prevention and control measures are all countermeasures against the risk factors and are a long-term process.

1. Improved lifestyle

1 Smoking cessation limit: Some studies have shown that a small amount of alcohol can increase the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the body, thereby reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease. Smoking is the chief culprit of coronary heart disease, and there should be perseverance to quit smoking.

2 Reasonable Diet: Control the total calories of the diet to maintain normal weight. Should reduce the total calories eaten daily, eat low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, limit the intake of alcohol and sugar. Promote a light diet, eat more foods rich in vitamins (such as fresh vegetables, fruits) and vegetable protein foods (such as bean products)

3 Appropriate physical labor and sports: The amount of physical activity should be based on Physical conditions, physical activity habits, and cardiac function status are based on the principle of not increasing the burden on the heart and causing discomfort. Body

4Psychological balance: Life should be regular, keep optimistic, happy, and avoid overwork and emotional excitement.

5 Also pay attention to “three and a half minutes” and “three and a half hours.” Three and a half minutes means wake up at night and wait for half a minute, then sit for half a minute, then lower your lower limbs for half a minute, then move down to the ground, there is no risk of myocardial ischemia, because heart attacks often get up at night and in the morning. Three and a half hours means walking half an hour every morning, half an hour after dinner, and half an hour at noon, the mortality rate of coronary heart disease is reduced by 30%.

2, active treatment of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and so on.

1 Hypertension: The blood pressure of all hypertensive patients should be controlled at least below 140/90 mmHg. The blood pressure of patients with kidney disease and diabetes should be controlled below 130/80 mmHg.

2 Hyperlipidemia:

The treatment of blood lipids is generally based on low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C).

(1) There is no coronary heart disease, risk factors <2, LDL treatment target is <4.1mmoL /L.

(2) No coronary heart disease, risk factors> 2, LDL treatment target is <3.4mmoL /L.

(3) There is coronary heart disease with a treatment target of <2.6mmoL/L.

3 Diabetes: Fasting blood glucose should be ≤6.1mm0L/L. Blood sugar should be ≤7.8mmoL/L 2 hours after meal. People with diabetes should pay more attention to postprandial blood glucose levels.

3. For patients with coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, reinfarction and other cardiovascular events should be prevented. Control measures can be broadly summarized as “ABCDE”:

“A” refers to aspirin and anticoagulant therapy;

“B” refers to beta blockers and monitoring, Control blood pressure;

“C” refers to lipid-lowering therapy and smoking bans;

“D” refers to reasonable diet and diabetes treatment;

“E” Refers to health education and physical exercise.

To achieve the above points, you can maximize the protection of your heart.