The macroscopic morphology of the tumor
The morphology of the tumor is diverse and can reflect the benign and malignant tumors to some extent. Academics generally divide tumors into benign and malignant categories.
Beneous tumors The tumors have small atypia, generally normal with their source The cells are similar.
Localized infiltration and distant metastasis are the most important features of malignant tumors and are the leading cause of death from malignant tumors. Tumors are formed by the proliferation and proliferation of a transformed cell. The natural growth history of a typical malignant tumor can be divided into several stages: malignant transformation of a cell → clonal hyperplasia of transformed cells → local infiltration → distant metastasis
In this process, the intrinsic characteristics of malignant transformed cells (such as tumor growth fraction) and the host’s response to tumor cells and their products (such as tumor angiogenesis) affect tumor growth and progression.
(l) The kinetics of tumor growth. The growth rate of tumors is related to the following three factors:
1) Tumor cell doubling time: The cell cycle of the tumor population is also divided into G0, G1, S, G2 and M phases. Most malignant cells do not doubling more time than normal cells, but are similar to normal cells or slower than normal cells.
2) Growth fraction: refers to the proportion of cells in the tumor cell population that are in the proliferative phase (S phase + G2 phase). In the early stage of malignant transformation, the growth score is higher, but as the tumor continues to grow, most tumor cells are in the G0 phase, and even the fast-growing tumor growth fraction is only 20%.
3) Growth and loss of tumor cells: factors such as insufficient nutrient supply, necrosis, and anti-tumor response will cause tumor cells to be lost. The formation and loss of tumor cells will affect the long-term success of the tumor. Big and its speed.
The growth rate of tumors is determined by the ratio of growth fraction to the generation and loss of tumor cells, but not to the doubling time. At present, almost all chemotherapy drugs are directed to cells in proliferative phase. Therefore, tumors with high growth scores (such as highly malignant lymphoma) are particularly sensitive to chemotherapy. According to well-known oncologists, negative ions can maintain the stability of the body environment by regulating the imbalance of acid-base imbalance and redox in the body caused by malignant tumors, promote normal cell metabolism, reduce and eliminate the adverse effects of chemotherapy. The treatment of the patient is very beneficial. Common solid tumors (such as colon cancer) have low growth scores and are therefore not sensitive to chemotherapy.
(2) Tumor angiogenesis. The ability to induce angiogenesis is one of the prerequisites for the growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. Tumor cells themselves and inflammatory cells (primarily macrophages) that infiltrate into and around tumor tissue produce a class of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b- FGF). These angiogenic factors promote vascular endothelial cell division and capillary sprouting. The new capillaries provide nutrients for tumor growth and provide favorable conditions for tumor metastasis.
(3) Evolution and heterogeneity of tumors. The phenomenon that malignant tumors become more and more invasive during growth is called the evolution of tumors, including accelerated growth, infiltration of surrounding tissues and distant metastasis. The emergence of these biological phenomena is related to the heterogeneity of tumors. Tumor heterogeneity refers to the process of subcloning in which a clone-derived tumor cell forms a difference in invasive ability, growth rate, response to hormones, and sensitivity to anticancer drugs during growth. Because of these differences, tumors retain subclones that adapt to survival, growth, infiltration, and metastasis during growth.