Learn about diabetes and fight diabetes

Author: Single Arizona

unit: Office of Patriotic Health Campaign Committee Changping District of Beijing

Source: 2017 Beijing Competition outstanding health science popular science articles

Diabetes is a worldwide public health problem that poses a serious threat to human health. Its incidence rate has a clear upward trend. The prevalence of diabetes in adults over 20 years old in China is 9.7%. China’s 60.7% diabetic patients were unable to receive effective treatment in time because they were not diagnosed.

If we do not take measures to prevent the conversion of diabetes to diabetes in the early stage, the number of people with diabetes in China will increase further, which is undoubtedly worse for the medical system that is currently overwhelmed by China. If the patients who have been diagnosed are not well treated and managed, the heavy mental and economic burden of diabetes complications on individuals, families and countries will seriously affect the healthy development of our society and economy. Due to the large population of diabetes, a large part of the wealth accumulated by China’s rapid economic development over the past few decades will be used to treat chronic complications of diabetes patients and to maintain their end-stage life.

So we need to understand what is diabetes, what are the dangers of diabetes, and how we can prevent diabetes.

First, we first understand whether there is diabetes based on how blood sugar is divided

1. Classification of diabetes status

Classification of sugar metabolism

venous plasma glucose (mmol/L)

fasting blood glucose(FPG)*

After sugar load2hourly blood sugar>(2hPG)

Normal Blood Sugar (NGR)

<6.1

<7.8

fasting glucose damage (IFG)

6.1~<7.0

<7.8

Iodine Tolerance Reduction (IGT)

<7.0

7.8~<11.1

diabetes (DM)

≥7.0

≥11.1

(IFG Crowd lineOGTTCheck to increase diabetes Diagnostic rate )

2, diagnosis of diabetes:

Diagnostic criteria

Venous plasma glucose(mmol/L)

1. Symptoms* +

(1) Randomized blood glucose**

≥11.1

or (2) fasting blood glucose (FPG)

≥7.0

or (3 2 hours after glucose load (2hPG)

≥11.1

2. If you have no symptoms of diabetes, you need to check your blood glucose repeatedly.

* Symptoms include hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, weight loss, itchy skin, blurred vision and other acute metabolic disorders

**Randomized blood glucose refers to blood glucose at any time of the day regardless of the last meal time. It cannot be used to diagnose IFG or IGT

Note: Temporary blood sugar may occur in acute infection, trauma or other stress conditions. Increase, if not A true history of hyperglycemia must be reviewed after stress is removed to determine the state of glucose metabolism

Second, who needs to check blood sugar:

Definition of high-risk populations of diabetes in adults: In adults (> 18 years of age), those with one or more of the following risk factors for diabetes:

Aberrant glucose regulation is paramount In people at high risk for type 2 diabetes, 1.5% to 10.0% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance progress to type 2 diabetes each year.

a. Age ≥40 years;

b. History of impaired glucose regulation;

c. Overweight (BMI≥24kg/m2) or obesity ( BMI≥28kg/m2) and/or central obesity (male waist circumference ≥90cm, female waist circumference≥85cm);

d. meditation lifestyle;

e. first-degree relatives There is a family history of type 2 diabetes;

f. Women with a history of production of a large child (born weight ≥ 4kg) or a history of gestational diabetes;

g. Hypertension [systolic blood pressure ≥ 140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg (1mmHg=0.133Pa)], or undergoing antihypertensive therapy;

h. dyslipidemia [HDL-C) ≤0.91mmol/L (≤35mg/dl), triglyceride ≥2.22mmol/L (≥200mg/dl), or undergoing lipid-lowering therapy;

i. Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases ;

j. Have a history of sexual steroid diabetes;

k. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PC0S);

l. Long-term antipsychotic Patients treated with drugs and/or antidepressants.

Definition of high-risk groups of diabetes in children and adolescents: In children and adolescents (≤18 years), overweight (BMI> corresponding age, gender, 85th percentile Or obesity (BMI> 95th percentile of age and gender) and combined with any of the following risk factors:

a. Family history of type 2 diabetes in primary or secondary relatives; /p>

b. There are clinical signs associated with insulin resistance (eg, acanthosis nigricans, hypertension, dyslipidemia, PCOS);

c. The mother has a history of diabetes during pregnancy or is diagnosed as Gestational diabetes.

The age and frequency of diabetes screening: For adults at high risk of diabetes, regardless of age, it is advisable to start screening for diabetes early, with no other diabetes risk other than age. People with factors should start screening at age ≥ 40 years. For children and adolescents at high risk of diabetes, it is advisable to start at the age of 10, but individuals with advanced puberty are recommended to start from puberty. If the initial screening results are normal, it should be repeated at least once every 3 years.

Diabetes screening strategy: In medical facilities with laboratory conditions, it is advisable to screen for diabetes in high-risk groups for medical examinations and physical examinations.

Three , the risk of diabetes:

The complications of diabetes are divided into microvascular complications And macrovascular complications, which are associated with many factors, including heredity, age, gender, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

The risk of microangiopathy and macrovascular disease in diabetic patients is significantly higher than in non-diabetic patients. The risk of reducing macrovascular and microvascular disease in diabetic patients depends not only on the control of hyperglycemia, but also on other cardiovascular diseases. Control of disease risk factors and improvement of unhealthy lifestyles. In addition to medication, diabetes control requires monitoring blood glucose and other cardiovascular risk factors to understand whether control is up to standard and to adjust treatment based on control goals. In addition, because diabetes is a lifelong disease, the patient’s behavior and self-management ability are also the key to the success of diabetes control. Therefore, the control of diabetes is not a traditional treatment but a systematic management.

Four, basic principles of preventive treatment

Limited to the current medical level, diabetes is still a lifelong disease, so it should be given lifelong close medical care for diabetic patients. attention. The immediate goal of diabetes treatment is to eliminate diabetes symptoms and prevent acute metabolic complications by controlling hyperglycemia and related metabolic disorders. The long-term goal of diabetes treatment is to prevent chronic complications, improve patients’ quality of life and prolong their life through good metabolic control. The purpose of life.

1, lifestyle interventions: including diet exercise

Unqualified for drug treatment.