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Kidney cancer is a highly malignant tumor, quite a few When patients seek treatment, they have obvious symptoms such as weight loss, anemia, low fever, loss of appetite, etc. This is to warn people not to ignore some minor illnesses in the body, and often endanger the consequences of the disease. It is also because the symptoms of kidney cancer are generally normal, and it is not easy to attract people’s attention.
Small disease causes caution in kidney cancer
1. Symptoms of secretion disorder:
According to a large number of experimental studies and clinical reports, kidney cancer can secrete a variety of endocrine factors to cause a series of symptoms, a tumor secreting a variety of endocrine factors is a feature of renal cell carcinoma. Renal cancer patients with erythrocytosis accounted for about 2%. 10% to 15% of patients with kidney cancer have high blood pressure. 3% to 16.8% of patients with renal cancer have hypercalcemia, and most of them are advanced lesions. Studies have reported that endocrine glucagon and high-glycogen-like active substances in renal cell carcinoma cause abnormalities in gastrointestinal tract dynamics and absorption. A small number of kidney cancers are accompanied by an increase in gonadotropin, which causes mammary gland enlargement, areola hyperpigmentation and loss of libido in men, and hairy and amenorrhea in women.
2, local tumor caused by symptoms:
The occurrence of renal cancer is more common is the occurrence of hematuria, generally the main manifestations are gross hematuria and /or Microscopic hematuria. Low back pain occurs as a result of an increase in renal capsule tension or invasion of surrounding tissue as the tumor grows, manifesting as persistent dull pain. Renal cancer patients can reach a mass of about 10% in the lower or upper abdomen, sometimes the only symptom. Varicocele often occurs on the left side, which is caused by tumor compression of the spermatic vein. It is a secondary lesion, and the varicose vein does not disappear after lying down, indicating that there is a blockage (or tumor thrombus) in the vein. When the inferior vena cava is invaded, there may be edema of the lower extremities.
3, systemic toxicity symptoms:
Since kidney cancer is a highly malignant tumor, many When patients seek treatment, they have obvious symptoms such as weight loss, anemia, low fever, loss of appetite, and lung or bone metastasis. Fever is one of the common extrarenal manifestations of kidney cancer. It has low fever or high fever, and can be as high as 39~40 °C. Anemia can be caused by blood loss, but some patients with renal cancer have no history of hematuria, but there is obvious anemia, indicating that the patient’s anemia is caused by hematuria. There are other reasons. Some authors believe that it may inhibit the hematopoiesis with tumor toxin or massive renal tissue destruction. related.
The clinical diagnosis of renal cancer mainly depends on imaging examination
Laboratory examination as an evaluation index for preoperative general condition, liver and kidney function and prognosis The diagnosis depends on pathological examination.
1. Recommended laboratory check items that must be included
Urea nitrogen, creatinine, liver function , complete blood count, hemoglobin, blood calcium, blood sugar, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase.
2. Recommended imaging examination items must be included
Abdominal B-ultrasound or color Doppler ultrasound, chest X-ray (positive, lateral) Abdominal CT plain scan and enhanced scan (negative iodine allergy test, no relevant contraindications). Abdominal CT plain scan and enhanced scan and chest X-ray film are the main basis for preoperative clinical staging (recommended grade A).
3.Recommended reference imaging program
The recommended inspection items are recommended in the following cases. Abdominal plain film: can help the surgical incision for open surgery; radionuclide kidney diagram or IVU examination indication: no CT enhanced scan, can not evaluate the contralateral renal function; radionuclide bone imaging test indication: 1 have the corresponding bone Symptoms; 2 high alkaline phosphatase; 3 clinical stage ≥ III patients; chest CT scan indications: 1 chest X-ray film with suspicious nodules; 2 clinical stage ≥ III patients; head MRI, CT scan Testimony: patients with headache or corresponding neurological symptoms; abdominal MRI scan indication: renal insufficiency, ultrasound or CT examination of patients with inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis.
4. Imaging studies for conditional areas and patients’ choice
Nephronography, spiral CT and MRI scans are mainly used for the diagnosis of renal cancer. Differential diagnosis; PET or PET-CT examination is expensive, mainly used to find distant metastatic lesions and evaluation of the efficacy of chemotherapy, cytokine therapy, molecular targeted therapy or radiotherapy.
5, renal biopsy and renal angiography
renal biopsy and renal angiography have limited diagnostic value for renal cancer. For patients with small tumors whose imaging diagnosis is difficult to determine, you can choose to maintain nephron surgery or regular (1~3 months) follow-up examination. For patients with kidney cancer who are frail or have surgical contraindications or patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who are inoperable, who require chemotherapy or other treatment (such as radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, etc.), before diagnosis, a clear diagnosis can be made. Biopsy for pathological diagnosis.
7 principles for preventing kidney cancer:
The first thing patients should pay attention to in life is the problem of smoking. The harm of smoke is well known, and it is to avoid radiation in life and use hormones with caution. Strengthen protection against lead compound exposure. Reducing the exposure of chemical carcinogens is a measure that cannot be ignored in the prevention of this disease.
2, health habits
People should also pay attention to develop good hygiene habits, because there are many bacteria in life that are caused by not paying attention to hygiene. Do not eat moldy rotten pickled foods. It is advisable to use a light diet and eat fish, eggs and a small amount of lean meat.
3, Scientific cooking
Cook foods rich in protein, not too high temperature, avoid burning meat and fish.
4. Pay attention to storing food
The remaining food and perishable food that has not been eaten should be frozen or stored in cold storage to prevent mold contamination and not to cause mildew and Food with a long shelf life.
5. Reasonable consumption of visceral seafood
Do not eat seafood more than 100g per day, do not eat or eat fish head, fish skin, oil, internal organs, Fish eggs, shark fins. The viscera can be eaten once or twice a week. Do not eat more than 50 grams per serving. It can be combined with some coarse grains and vegetables to supplement the dietary fiber.
6. Limit salt and carbonated drinks
Restrict salt and salted food intake and drink cans. Adults use no more than 6g of salt per day, and can use iodized salt.
7. Avoid busy with supplements
Dietary supplements are not helpful in reducing the risk of kidney cancer. Do not use dietary supplements blindly.
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