Early and late symptoms and imaging examination of esophageal cancer!

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Esophageal cancer is a type of cancer and therefore needs Do an image check. However, there are many kinds of image inspections today, how should we choose? Here, it is better to learn about the three major symptoms and imaging methods of esophageal cancer.

Three major symptoms of esophageal cancer

1 Hemorrhage or hematemesis.

A part of patients with esophageal cancer have vomiting. Individual esophageal cancer patients have hematemesis due to tumor invasion of large blood vessels, and occasionally massive bleeding. Hematemesis is generally a clinical symptom of patients with advanced esophageal cancer.

2 cachexia.

In advanced cases, due to the difficulty of swallowing, the long-term hunger leads to negative nitrogen balance and weight loss, which has a direct impact on the incidence of complications and operative mortality after resection of esophageal cancer. . The patient developed cachexia and marked loss of water, which was characterized by high weight loss, weakness, dry skin and dryness, and was in a state of exhaustion.

3 Caused by cancer metastasis.

If the cancer cells invade the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the vocal cords are paralyzed and hoarse; the tumor is oppressed and invaded by the trachea and bronchus, and the irritating dry cough; the phrenic nerve is invaded, causing paralysis of the diaphragm; invading the vagus nerve, Accelerate heart rate; invade brachial plexus, cause acidosis, pain, paresthesia; oppression of superior vena cava, causing superior vena cava compression syndrome; liver, lung, brain and other important organ cancer metastasis, can cause jaundice, ascites, liver Complications such as failure, difficulty breathing, and coma.

Image examination for esophageal cancer

1CT scan:

A fasting check should be performed to enhance the scan to help show proximity The heart of the large blood vessels, to improve the contrast, the patient generally takes the supine position, swallowing a dilute iodine solution and gas to show the esophageal lumen. The reference esophageal angiography was performed by thin-layer scanning (2MM–5MM) or reconstruction in the lesion, and the partial volume effect was reduced to make the relationship between the tumor and the surrounding structure clear.

2MRI:

fasting scans, T1 and T2-weighted images, local thin layers without gaps, cross-sectional, sagittal scans showing tumors and surrounding The relationship between the tissues and the coronal plane helps to observe the mediastinal lymph nodes.

3 B-ultrasound in the esophagus:

With a 7.5MHz transducer, the spatial resolution is up to 0.2mm and the penetration depth is up to 5cm–7cm, can show the layers of the esophageal wall and regional lymph nodes.

The imaging examinations of various esophageal cancers are different and cannot be replaced by each other.

Early and intermediate symptoms of esophageal cancer

First, early symptoms of esophageal cancer

1, swallowing sputum sputum sensation: the most common, can be selected to disappear and relapse, does not affect eating. It often occurs when the patient’s mood fluctuates, so it is easy to be mistaken for functional symptoms.

2, pain behind the sternum and under the xiphoid: more common. When swallowing food, there is pain in the back of the sternum or under the xiphoid. Its nature can be burnt, acupuncture or pull-like, with rough, hot or irritating food. Initially intermittent, when the cancer invades nearby tissues or has penetration, there may be severe and persistent pain. The pain site is often not completely consistent with the lesion in the esophagus. Most of the pain can be temporarily relieved by the antispasmodic agent.

3, food retention infection and foreign body sensation: when swallowing food or drinking water, there is a feeling that the food is slow and staying, and the feeling of tightness behind the sternum or the adhesion of food to the esophageal wall The food disappeared. Most of the symptoms occur in the same area as the lesion in the esophagus.

4, dry throat and tightness: dry and rough food is especially obvious, the occurrence of this symptom is often related to the patient’s mood fluctuations.

5, other symptoms: a small number of patients may have sternal swelling, discomfort, anterior pain and hernia.

Second, the mid-term symptoms of esophageal cancer

1, swallowing sputum sputum sensation: the most common, can disappear and relapse, does not affect eating. It often occurs when the patient’s mood fluctuates, so it is easy to be mistaken for functional symptoms.

2, pain behind the sternum and under the xiphoid: more common. When swallowing food, there is pain in the back of the sternum or under the xiphoid. Its nature can be burnt, acupuncture or pull-like, with rough, hot or irritating food. Initially intermittent, when the cancer invades nearby tissues or has penetration, there may be severe and persistent pain. The pain site is often not completely consistent with the lesion in the esophagus. Most of the pain can be temporarily relieved by the antispasmodic agent.

3, food retention infection and foreign body sensation: when swallowing food or drinking water, there is a feeling that the food is slow and staying, and the feeling of tightness behind the sternum or the adhesion of food to the esophageal wall The food disappeared. Most of the symptoms occur in the same area as the lesion in the esophagus.

4, dry throat and tightness: dry and rough food is especially obvious, the occurrence of this symptom is often related to the patient’s mood fluctuations.

5, other symptoms: a small number of patients may have sternal swelling, discomfort, anterior pain and hernia.

Typical symptoms of mid-stage esophageal cancer: progressive dysphagia, post-sternal pain during swallowing, and mucus-like sputum.

Three, advanced symptoms of esophageal cancer

1, difficulty in swallowing progressive difficulty in swallowing: is the vast majority of patients The main symptoms at the time of the visit, but it is the later stage of the disease. Because the esophageal wall is elastic and expandable, it is difficult to swallow only when about 2/3 of the esophageal circumference is infiltrated by the cancer. Therefore, after the above-mentioned early symptoms appear, the condition gradually worsens within a few months, and it cannot be swallowed by the inability to ingest solid foods to develop liquid foods. Such as cancer with esophageal wall inflammation, edema, sputum, etc., can increase the difficulty of swallowing. The location of the blockage is often consistent with the location of the hand cancer.

2, food reaction: often occurs when the difficulty of swallowing is aggravated, the reverse flow is not large, contains food and mucus, and may also contain blood and pus.

3, other symptoms: When the cancer compresses the recurrent laryngeal nerve, it can cause hoarseness. Invading the phrenic nerve can cause hiccups or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Compression of the trachea or bronchi can cause shortness of breath and dry cough. Arteries can cause fatal bleeding. When the esophagus-tracheal or esophageal-bronchial spasm or cancer is located in the upper part of the esophagus, the cervical sympathetic paralysis group can often occur when swallowing fluid.

Effects of esophageal cancer

1, eating difficulties: due to the harm of the tumor, the patient can not make a normal diet, in the early days for the consumption of solid rough food When it happens, it will cause pain, so that even in the late stage, even a semi-liquid diet will be hindered.

2, esophageal fistula: After the esophagus, it will cause nausea, vomiting, and pain. As the tumor grows, it will slowly block the esophagus and affect the eating, resulting in patients unable to supplement nutrition. The patient is getting thinner.

3, cancer cell metastasis: esophageal cancer will spread to all parts of the body, when the arm to the plexus, it will cause acid, pain; transfer to the liver, lungs, brain and other important organs At the time, it will aggravate the patient’s difficulty in breathing and exhaustion, which may cause dysfunction in the corresponding part.

4. Difficulty breathing: When the cancer tissue invades the recurrent laryngeal nerve, it will cause the patient to hoarse. When transferring to the adjacent tissue, the systemic symptoms will be uncomfortable, causing ascites and breathing. Difficulties and coma.

5, myocarditis: This is a disease that is more harmful to esophageal cancer, which can cause a variety of malignant tumors, and esophageal cancer will promote the occurrence of myocarditis, causing huge damage to the body. The consequences are quite serious.

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