author: Gao Hong Jiao
deputy chief physician, master, Zunyi City, First People’s Hospital of Endocrinology. Member of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Association of the Guizhou Medical Association, member of the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Guizhou Provincial Medical Association.
Diseases that are good at diagnosis: diabetes and its chronic complications. Especially pregnancy with diabetes, type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes is a group of clinical syndromes characterized by chronic hyperglycemia caused by genetic and environmental factors. Insulin deficiency and insulin dysfunction can cause carbohydrates and fats alone or simultaneously. Metabolic disorders such as proteins, water and electrolytes. China adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) Diabetes Etiological Classification System in 1999, which classified diabetes into four major types, namely, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, special type diabetes, and gestational diabetes.
Type I and Type 2 Diabetes
Most of the type 2 diabetes is the result of multiple genes and multiple environmental factors participating and interacting. The pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes are a decrease in the ability of insulin to regulate glucose metabolism (insulin resistance), with a decrease (or relative reduction) in insulin secretion caused by defects in islet beta cell function. Insulin resistance is closely related to obesity.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
refers to diabetes caused by destruction of islet β-cells or absolute insulin deficiency, but does not include the type of diabetes caused by the destruction of the cause β-cell destruction. . The majority of type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune cause, which may be related to genetic factors, environmental factors and autoimmune factors.
Three, special type of diabetes
is a relatively high-glycemic state with a relatively clear etiology, including hereditary defects in islet β-cell function, hereditary defects in insulin action, pancreatic exocrine diseases, endocrine diseases, diabetes caused by drugs or chemicals, Infection, uncommon immune-mediated diabetes, and other genetic syndromes associated with diabetes.
Fourth, gestational diabetes
refers to different degrees of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, but blood glucose does not reach the level of dominant diabetes, accounting for 80% to 90% of pregnancy diabetes %.
24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy Oral glucose tolerance test, 5.1 mmol /L ≤ fasting blood glucose <7.0mmol /L, 1 hour blood glucose ≥ 10.0mmol /L, 8.5 mmol /L ≤ 2 hours blood glucose <11.1mmol /L, one of the above blood glucose values meet the standard is diagnosed Gestational diabetes. However, simple fasting blood glucose>5.1mmo/L in early pregnancy cannot diagnose gestational diabetes and requires follow-up.
Pregnant women with hyperglycemia can cause premature eclampsia, premature labor, surgical delivery, polyhydramnios, postpartum hemorrhage, infection, stillbirth, etc., which are increasingly being taken clinically. Pregnancy with hyperglycemia in addition to gestational diabetes, there are two types of pregnancy-induced diabetes and pre-pregnancy diabetes.
Pregnant Dominant Diabetes: refers to the diagnostic criteria for diabetes in non-pregnant population at any time during pregnancy: fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or 2 h after glucose load ≥11.1 mmol/L, or random blood glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L .
Pre-pregnancy diabetes: refers to type 1 , type 2 or special type of diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy, which is the most severe form of diabetes in pregnancy.
Do you have any questions about the type of diabetes? Let’s discuss it in the comments!
※This article was originally created by Gao Hongjun, a special doctor of Sugar Man Health Network. It is not authorized and cannot be reproduced.