Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar. Hyperglycemia is caused by defects in insulin secretion or its biological effects, or both. Hyperglycemia, which persists in diabetes, causes chronic damage and dysfunction of various tissues, especially the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and nerves. The incidence of diabetes in China is getting higher and higher, and the treatment methods are also diverse. Endocrinologists are not only responsible for mastering the treatment of patients, but also let the diabetic patients or surrounding healthy people bypass the common misunderstanding of diabetes!
1 Misunderstanding of diabetes awareness
Is it really hard to get diabetes? In fact, long-term immersion of human organs in hyperglycemia can cause damage, eventually leading to a variety of complications, leading to a decline in quality of life, and even death. Diabetes is ultimately more likely to cause death than breast cancer and AIDS.
Is diabetes caused by eating sugar? Diabetes is a chronic, systemic metabolic disease caused by long-term interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Eating sugar can make blood sugar higher in diabetic patients, but eating sugar does not directly cause diabetes. 2 Misunderstandings in diet and exercise therapy
Is diabetes diet treatment a hungry or vegan therapy? In fact, hunger or vegan therapy will only make patients worse.
Diabetes diet treatment only needs to limit the staple food? In fact, in addition to staple foods, other nuts, proteins, oils, fats and other substances will directly affect the patient’s blood sugar levels, so you need to pay attention.
Is it possible to eat fruit without diabetes? Experts advise that as long as the patient’s condition is stable, blood sugar is basically controlled in fasting blood glucose <7.8mmol /L, blood glucose <10mmol /L 2 hours after meal, glycosylated hemoglobin <7.5%, can be used under the guidance of nutritionists to choose low sugar content, taste Sweet and sour fruits; fruits and vegetables with a sugar content <5%, such as strawberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc., are recommended for patients with high blood sugar and unstable conditions.
Do you eat pumpkin and bitter gourd to cure diabetes? The folklore legendary pumpkin can stimulate the islet cell reaction and promote insulin production. The bitter melon secretes insulin. The actual situation is that no experiment has confirmed that pumpkin can stimulate islet cell reaction and increase insulin secretion, while bitter gourd has certain lipid-lowering effect, but not Hypoglycemic.
The greater the amount of exercise in diabetic patients, the better? Excessive, excessive exercise increases the risk of hypoglycemia and can cause other sports injuries! Professor Yan suggested that the sports program should be compatible with the patient’s age, condition and physical endurance. Adult diabetic patients have a moderate intensity (50% – 70% maximum heart rate, heart rate and respiratory acceleration but not rapid) aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week (eg, 5 days per week, 30 minutes each). Including: fast walking, golf, cycling, table tennis, badminton, etc. If there are no contraindications, perform at least 2 resistance exercises, exercise muscle endurance and strength every week.
Diabetes patients must not travel? Many people think that travel may make people with diabetes dangerous, especially those who are treated with insulin. In fact, patients with stable blood sugar can travel, but it is recommended to travel with them and carry drugs and injection tools with them, and pay attention to protecting the feet.
A lot of tofu is good? Many people think that tofu can lower blood sugar, regulate fat, prevent constipation, and diabetic patients should eat more. In fact, the tofu is cold, stomach cold, spleen deficiency, kidney deficiency should not eat more.
3 Misunderstandings in the treatment of hypoglycemic drugs
Metformin hurts the kidneys? Metformin is mainly excreted by the kidneys in its original form and is rapidly cleared, which itself is not toxic to the kidneys. Therefore, it is not that metformin is a kidney, but patients with renal insufficiency cannot take metformin.
Is insulin injection addictive? Strictly speaking, insulin is not a medicine, but an essential hypoglycemic substance in the human body. It is not addictive. Need to use insulin, whether it can be removed after use, depending on the condition.
Injecting insulin is really troublesome and painful? Unlike other ordinary needles, the insulin needle is a portable needle that is only a few millimeters to be injected under the skin. It is not a normal vascular injury.
Insulin must wait until the oral drug is ineffective to use it? Many patients believe that insulin treatment means that the previous treatment has failed. In fact, with the decline of islet function to a certain extent, insulin injection is inevitable. Early use of insulin can control the early blood glucose, thereby delaying or reducing the occurrence of complications.
4 Misunderstandings in self-management
When the skin is itchy, will scratching the skin have an adverse effect? Diabetic patients are susceptible to various acute and chronic infections due to metabolic disorders in the body, weak constitution, poor resistance. Once the skin is infected, it will itch and the patient can’t help but scratch. Diabetic patients have low immunity, and it is difficult to heal once the skin is broken, and even ulcers that have not healed for a long time. Therefore, diabetic patients must not scratch the skin and cause ulceration.
Can you apply the ointment? Many patients apply their own ointment after scratching and smashing their skin. Not only will they not heal, they may even worsen their condition. It should be noted that fungal infections are prone to occur in warm and humid areas, especially in the vulva, under the breast and wrinkles on the skin. Infections on the face, feet and ear canal are more serious, and skin infections in any part should occur. Go to the hospital for inspection and treatment as soon as possible.
Can you use hot water to soak your feet? Diabetic patients are often accompanied by peripheral neuropathy. Patients are not sensitive to cold, heat, pain, pain, etc. Hot water soaking feet often cause burns, and even infections cause diabetic foot. It is recommended to wash the feet with warm water below 37 °C for a bath time of no more than 10 minutes.
5 Misunderstandings in Diabetes Surveillance
Do you only need to monitor your blood glucose during self-monitoring? Diabetes can induce a variety of complications, such as: high blood pressure, high blood lipids, coronary heart disease, etc. When weight gain and blood pressure rise, it may mean complications, so patients with diabetes should be monitored in multiple directions.
Do you need to monitor your blood sugar after your blood sugar level is stable? After the blood sugar is stable, the blood glucose monitoring time can be reduced, but the blood sugar monitoring should not be relaxed. It is recommended to regularly monitor fasting, postprandial, and bedtime blood glucose to prevent complications.
When you feel hypoglycemia, do you eat without measuring your blood sugar? Hypoglycemia often manifests as uncomfortable symptoms such as hunger, fatigue, dizziness, etc., but sometimes these symptoms are not hypoglycemia, but a signal of disease occurrence. If you eat it if you are uncomfortable, it is easy to cause high blood sugar, which is not conducive to smooth blood sugar control. Blood glucose should be measured immediately when it is uncomfortable. When it is confirmed to be hypoglycemic (below 3.9mmol/L), eat again. After 15 minutes of eating, measure blood sugar.
6 Relationship between obesity and diabetes
At present, there are more and more obese people in China
and the incidence of diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate
More terrible is that teenagers and youth The number of patients is significantly increased
The most of them are obese!
Long-term persistent obesity
The incidence of diabetes is 4 times higher than that of the average person!
7 Progress from obesity to diabetes
obesity→low glucose tolerance→type 2 diabetes→uncontrolled hyperglycemia→diabetes complications→disability and death.
So, how do you initially estimate whether you have a tendency to develop diabetes?
How to prevent and treat diabetes?
8 Early symptoms of diabetes are
1, oral cavity: dry mouth and thirst, drinking more water, sputum, ecchymosis, edema, gums in oral mucosa Swelling or painful, or a burning sensation in the mouth.
2, weight: Slow weight loss, but no obvious reason.
3, physical strength: often fatigue and hunger, sweating, palpitations, tremors, hypoglycemia
4, urine: male frequent urination, more urine
5, eyelids: yellow flat new organism (yellow tumor) under the eyelid
6, skin: lower limbs, foot ulcers have not healed for a long time; or have repeated skin and vulvar infections; skin abrasions or scratches are not easy to heal; men may have recurrent balanitis, vulvitis Vaginitis.
7. Vascular: arteriosclerosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease
8, reproduction: multiple abortions in women, pregnancy poisoning, excessive amniotic fluid, or a large fetus.
9, “Three more and one less”: that is, much more urine, eat more, drink more, this is the most obvious symptom.