Chronic disease – diabetes 1

chronic disease - Diabetes 1


First, the profile of diabetes

Second, the definition of diabetes: What is diabetes?

3. Diabetes typing: What types?

(1) Type I Diabetes

(2) Type II Diabetes

(3) Gestational Diabetes

( 4) Special Type of Diabetes

Four Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes

(1) Normal Status

(2) Fasting Blood Glucose Loss

(3) Impaired glucose tolerance


V. Clinical manifestations of diabetes (complications, hazards)

(1)Typical symptoms

(2) Complications (acute, chronic)

Six, causes of diabetes>

Seven, high-risk groups

Eight, treatment of diabetes

(1) Principle

(2) Treatment target

(3) Program: “five carriages”

chronic disease - diabetes 1

I. Diabetes Overview

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently affecting the world A total health problem, its prevalence is increasing.

China: As of the beginning of 2014, the Diabetes Society of China Medical Association announced the results of the Diabetes Epidemiology Survey. People over the age of 30 in China have 139 million diabetes, and the prevalence rate is 11.6%, that is, one of nine people will have a diabetes. Called the world’s number one diabetes power.

 Chronic disease - diabetes 1

World: According to the International Diabetes Association (IDF), the latest edition of the Diabetes Manual, There are currently 415 million people with diabetes worldwide, and one in every 11 people is diabetic. About 1.5 million people died of diabetes directly in 2012, more than 80% of death cases occurred in low- and middle-income countries, it is expected that by 2030 diabetes will become the world’s #strong>the seventh leading cause of death.

 Chronic disease - diabetes 1

chronic disease - diabetes 1

Second, diabetes definition: What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The basic pathological features are absolute or relative lack of insulin secretion, or peripheral tissue is not sensitive to insulin, causing a systemic disorder characterized by disorders of glucose metabolism, including fat and protein metabolism disorders. The long-term high blood sugar in diabetes leads to chronic damage and dysfunction of various tissues, especially eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels and nerves, which can be fatal or disabling.

 Chronic disease - diabetes 1

3. Diabetes typing: What types?

(1) Type I diabetes: Insulin deficiency caused by islet cell destruction, no insulin available;

(2) Type II diabetes: insulin resistance/insulin secretion defect;

(3) Gestational diabetes;

(4) Other special types of diabetes.

(1) Type I Diabetes

The etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, and the significant pathophysiological and pathological features of islet β-cells are significantly reduced and Insulin secretion is significantly reduced or absent due to disappearance.


1 No insulin is available;

2About Accounting for all types of patients 5-10%;

3 may occur in people of any age, but is mainly in teenagers;

4 Autoimmune disease—the body’s own immune system destroys the beta cells of the kidney;

5 has a genetic relationship;

6 has a strong ethnic association;

7 may be affected by viruses or chemicals.

 Chronic disease - diabetes 1

Normal symptoms:

1 hyperglycemia


3 polyuria

4 polydipsia

5 greedy

6 weight loss

7 fatigue

8 ketoacidity is high


1 need insulin to maintain life;

2N.EEDS treatment plan, diabetes treatment troika (nutrition, exercise, education, medication , blood glucose self-monitoring)

chronic disease - diabetes 1

(2) Type II diabetes.

The etiology and pathogenesis are currently unclear, and its significant pathophysiological features are insulin reduction (or relative reduction) or insulin resistance caused by insulin resistance in islet β-cell function. Decreased ability to regulate glucose metabolism in the body or both.


1ß cells still exist and function, but the response is not normal;

2About diabetes 90% of people;

3 strong genetic relationship;

4 With the increase of age, the probability of illness is also greatly increased;

5 has a racial relationship;

6 obese patients especially need to pay attention! About accounted for 90% of the total number of diabetes, more common in adults, more than 40 years old.

2 has a significant genetic tendency, with a family history of diabetes.


1 needs to be treated according to the patient’s condition;

2 oral hypoglycemic agents;

3 may need to rely on insulin therapy;

2N.EEDS treatment plan, diabetes treatment troika (nutrition, exercise, education, medication, blood glucose self-monitoring )

(3) Gestational diabetes.

Diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy do not include hyperglycemia during pregnancy in a diabetic patient.

2-4% of women develop gestational diabetes after pregnancy, and their blood sugar levels return to normal after pregnancy. But about 30-50% of people develop diabetes after about 15 years (if weight is obese, 60% will develop diabetes).

(4) Special types of diabetes.

At some level (from environmental factors to genetic factors or interactions between the two), some of the hyperglycemia states with relatively clear etiology accounted for only 0.7%. With the deepening of research on the pathogenesis of diabetes, the types of special types of diabetes will gradually increase.

 Chronic disease - diabetes 1

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