Something introverts really wants to do, it seems, is to read and talk about their own introversion. A commentator in a recent publication of the journal Science of Us on the four types of introversion sums up the topics very well: "My God, the introverters are just so FUN!" – Introverts. This tendency, you could argue, can only arise because the introverters spend as if they spend a lot of time in deep reflection, lost in their thoughts – and some of these thoughts, of course, are going to be for themselves .
But at what point does self-refraction cross the line to self-medication? As it turns out, there are some striking similarities between the popular perception of introversion and a psychological feature called covert narcissism: It is all the right and majesty that most people associate with narcissism, minus the whistle. Maybe you know someone like this: They tend to think that they are underestimated or overlooked, as their amazing qualities remain forever unnoticed by everyone else. Often they take things very personally, especially criticism, and sometimes they feel a little unhappy when other people bother them with their problems.
Take a look at some of the items on a scale to measure the covert narcissism, designed by psychologist Jonathan Cheek:
I easily co-operate with my interests and forget about the existence of others.
I feel I am idiotratically different from most people.
When I walk into a room, I often become conscious and I feel that the eyes of others are over me.
From the last, Cheek told me: "Who are you, who looks at you? It's a narcissistic fantasy, assuming the world is paying you a lot of attention. " (Scroll down to the bottom of this post, incidentally, if you want to see how you rank in Cheek's Quiz.) Overall, many of the Cheek Scale elements sound like the way most people understand introversion, and this is not a coincidence. Disguised narcissism is strongly correlated with introversion, Cheek explained – if you have one, you are more likely to have the other, although there are many introverts that do not have narcissistic tendencies either. "Disguised narcissism is a dark side of introversion," he said. "Just as clear narcissism is a dark side of extroversion." In other ways: All introverts are not disguised narcissists – but the covert narrators are almost certainly introverted.
The covert narcissism is called many names in the scientific literature: narcissism in wardrobes, hypersensitivity to narcissism and vulnerable narcissism, to name a few. Here, I will mainly use the term covert narcissism and the opposite – self-explanatory narcissism, which is the usual way of thinking about narcissism: that is, like Trump-ish. But what you want to name is in no way a new insight into human behavior, though it is not yet widely known outside of the academic world. Already since the late 1930s, researchers have published their observations on this quieter form of narcissism, according to psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman, who once wrote about the subject of Scientific American. The University of California, Berkeley, psychologist Paul Wink, addressed again in the early 1990s and later in that decade, Cheek published the first version of his scale.
But covert narcissism is underestimated compared to his most intense brother, mainly because the characteristic is difficult to observe in human nature, let alone in a laboratory environment, explained W. Keith Campbell, a psychologist at the University of Georgia. "It's not someone with a great personality," said Campbell. "It is someone who is a bit paranoid, who believes they are not treated fairly, they are a little suspicious, entitled". (When he makes presentations on this subject, the pop culture that often pops up on his slides to portray the vulnerable narcissist is George Costanza.)
Because the attribute is so closely related to introversion, there are few external signs of this version of narcissism – instead of licking up, for example, covert narcissists usually keep their high opinions locked inside, letting them feel misunderstood and overlooked. Zooey Deschanel, for example, may or may not be introverted and may or may not be a narcissist, but in 2012 she made an interview Allure which includes an excerpt from the college experience, and is a very large joint of this state of mind. "I went to Northwestern because I was going to a really non-traditional high school." I was like, "It would be cool to have a traditional college experience," he told the magazine. "Then I was like," Oh, but none of these people understand what's cool about me. My specialty is not appreciated in this place. "
Some psychologists, however, argue that all narrators are, in fact, quite vulnerable or even destitute, despite their external strides. "There are disguised narcissistic aspects in every kind of narcissist," said Craig Malkin, author of the new book Review of narcissism: Evil – and surprised good – About the feeling of special. "It's just a mess with all these different terms. In the common core, these are people who are addicted to feeling separate, it's just that there are many ways to do it." Others say covert narcissism may not be real narcissism, but a form of neurology. (And in any case, incidentally, we are talking here about the narrative characteristic, which is different from the DSM-V personality disorder. Many people's personalities would be counted somewhere in the narcissistic spectrum; when narcissism begins to interfere negatively with lives causing serious problems at work or at home, that they begin to move away from a turbulent territory.)
Cheek, incidentally, has recently completed a new research on the "common core" that unites the two features of the feature, presented earlier this year at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. In a study of more than 600 people, he found that both introverted and extroverted narrators had two things in common: the sense of right and the fantasies of their own majesty. "You have to have a great feeling for yourself, but you also have to feel like you have the right to recognize it from other people," Cheek said. "If you are open, you are out there where you are struggling for this recognition But if you are disguised, you are in this kind of strange, introverted situation where you have these thoughts like, I wonder why people do not appreciate my better qualities; another does not understand me. "
Clear narcissism brings with it some good qualities – these kinds of people, for example, tend to make excellent leaders. On the other hand, "I do not see much favorably for vulnerable narcissism," said Campbell. If you see one of you in the definition of this kind of egoism podocam (and you, you narcissist), there are some ways to downgrade the trends. "Practical care and compassion for others," said Campbell. "Do things you are passionate about, not to look good and to take responsibility for your actions. Basically, practices that minimize the ego and increase the connection with the world." Bonus: If you are the type of introvert that is prone to social anxiety, turning your attention away from yourself has been shown to reduce those feelings of composure. Life becomes easier – for every type of personality – when you remember yourself every time it's not all for you.
You can take our quiz, licensed from the Cheek Ten Scale, to see if you are a notorious narcissist or not.
More from our science:
So there appear to be 4 types of Introversion
At a neurological level, narrators are nervous
It can be an Ambivert, an Introvert-Extrovert Hybrid
When Introverts have to avoid coffee
The healthy privileges of being a Narrator
The intelligence is great, but the difference is good for you too
This article originally appeared at nymag.com